I volunteered my time at an event called Help Portrait last year that has photographers, make up artists and organizers giving their time to create portraits for people that otherwise couldn’t afford a professional one. They ended up sending most of the families to me, initially because I had the biggest area to do the group photo and later because the other photographers said I was the best with the kids.  To see some of my photos from that event go to Help Portrait, Edmonton  2012. 
Talk to your wedding photographer about how long he or she will need to take the different types of wedding portraits. For the best results, photographers agree that wedding party portraits take about 30 minutes, family portraits take about 30 minutes (if you’re sticking with only photographing close family), and couple portraits take between 45 minutes to an hour. If you’re having a “first look,” all of these can be completed before the ceremony. If you’re not having a “first look,” you can still take separate family portraits, and photos of the bridesmaids and groomsmen before the ceremony, but any portraits with the couple together will be taken during cocktail hour.
Consider COLOR: Most people look their best in certain colors (mine are green and orange).  Although I love hiding in black clothes as much as the next guy, it tends to be a tough color for photographs.  And again - you don't need to match. Pick a color tone (jewel tone) or pallette (pastels) - maybe even select 3-4 colors - and go from there.  Pinterest has some great color ideas for family photos.  Before you go out and buy anything - spend a bit of time with favorite items you already own.  You probably have everything you need. 
So you’re at a wedding. More than likely there are a few unmarried couples at the wedding. One idea is to display some photos from earlier in the day. You can take your own computer and make a quick slideshow of say 20 images to play during the evening. The couple get to see some sneak previews of what you have captured. Meanwhile, potential future couples have seen you in action and the results produced. Obviously ok this with the couple beforehand but it can be a win-win for everyone.
It can be easy for the photographer to miss the cake cutting, bouquet throwing, etc.  While photographers are usually good about setting out a schedule with brides for the big things like when the bride/groom photos will be taken, they often forget to work with the bride about when these things will be so they aren't missed.  This is especially true if you're shooting solo.  (Thanks Ed Cord, who is a regular on the Facebook page)
While I had visions of taking lots of ‘cute’ shots of Xavier in his first week I found that what actually happened was that the first week of his life ended up being more like a documentary shoot. The focus of my shots ended up being of a lot of ‘firsts’. First moment with Mum, first bath, first time on the scales (he was just under 9 pounds), first outfit, first manicure (he had long nails from day one), first time meeting grandparents etc. I ended up taking a picture of him with every visitor that came (these will make nice gifts) and decided to leave the ‘cute’ shots until when we got back home and he’d settled a little more.
This is probably my favorite pose, and is always the one I start with if the baby is sleepy (plan to feed your baby right before you try to photograph him so he’ll be more likely to fall asleep). I love how peaceful babies look in this position. It’s also a great pose if you (like me) like newborns to be naked in their photos – you can see their sweet little arms and legs, but nothing else is exposed.

Annie, Thank you so much for this post. I found this delightful and amazingly informative post on Pinterest. I’d been on the for hours looking at how to style family portraits. I’m going insane, we have pictures tomorrow and I still don’t know what I’m wearing. I have my husband and the 4 kids (boys age 17, 16, & 11 and our girl age 10) clothes picked out but not myself. Deep breath….. I’m going to try again to find something conducive. Wish me luck


Katie Lamb Photography is a photography studio based in Fort Worth, Texas. All sessions are conducted within the areas of Southlake, Keller, or Grapevine; travel outside of these areas is limited and depends on availability. This studio specializes in family, couple, mommy + me, and boudoir photography. Katie Lamb Photography also creates custom films that are 1.5 to 2 minutes in length.
Lighting: If you talk to any photographer, they’ll tell you that lighting is 90% of what makes a photo good or bad. One of the best ways to understand lighting is to hold up your hand and face your palm toward a window. Then start rotating your hand back and forth and look at the different ways shadows are cast on your hand as you move it around. If you face your hand directly at the window, the light falls very evenly and cleanly, but if you start moving your hand at a ninety degree angle away from the window, it creates shadows that make your hand look moody and dramatic. This is what photographers do all day. We analyze light. So as you’re looking through photographers’ portfolios, you’ll start to notice that we all play with light differently. Some photographers prefer really bright photos that make the world look light and airy, while others use light to create mood and emotion. For example, take the photos below. They are of the same bride, taken moments apart, but the light is totally different, and therefore the photos are totally different.
Ask your photographer to capture your paper suite alongside a mix of meaningful big-day objects, like your wedding rings, day-of stationery (like ceremony programs and vow transcripts!), and any family heirlooms, advises Shannon Moffit. Fill out negative space with ribbons in shades that reference your color palette and flowers featured in your bridal bouquet. The result? A photograph that serves an entryway to your big day—and one that'll make the ultimate album opener.
So much can go wrong on the day – so you need to be well prepared. Have a backup plan (in case of bad weather), have batteries charged, memory cards blank, think about routes and time to get to places and get an itinerary of the full day so you know what’s happening next. If you can, attend the rehearsal of the ceremony where you’ll gather a lot of great information about possible positions to shoot from, the lighting, the order of the ceremony etc

Pick out accessories to add texture to your photos. Accessories are great style pieces that add to your individual outfits and can even tie family members’ outfits together. For example, if Dad is wearing a red and black plaid coat then adding a plaid hat to your daughter’s outfit will tie the pattern in for a more cohesive feel. Accessories will also give your photos variation. Think scarves, hats, gloves and belts.

Julia Lauren Photography creates relaxed, casual photo sessions in its newborn photography work. The Dallas photo studio also photographs family portraits, maternity photos, and high school senior portraits. Julia Lauren Photography has been featured in Fort Worth Texas Magazine, WFAA 8, and Us Weekly. Clients have praised the photographer for her stunning, meaningful work and fun photo shoots.


Thank you very much for the tips. My son is 9 months old and I have took thousands of pictures but I never satisfied with the end result. We had to use professional photography when he was new born. It was very expensive. He is very chubby, charming and beautiful boy but it does not justify in the pictures. Now I have learnt few tricks thanks to you I will definitely try it once and I will let you know. I have bought one of the fancy expensive camera but I have no idea how to get the good result."After suffering two miscarriages, I wanted to make sure that I captured my first full term pregnancy As best as possible. So, I had to find the best photographer to do so. After searching on IG for days, I found Mary! I contacted her and she had a heart of gold and made me feel so comfortable! The day of the shoot I was a little tense at first because I am not a model at all but she posed me perfectly and helped me loosen up! All of my final images are beautiful and she defiantly will be doing baby’s newborn shoot!"
For good portraits you must turn off your flash. Your camera’s pop-up flash does more harm than good in most photography situations, so make sure you aren’t using it when you try to photograph your newborn. Instead, find a good source of natural light, like a large window or glass door, and set up close to it. If you have enough light coming in you won’t need either your flash or your overhead lights (which are also not a good plan when taking portraits). If it’s warm enough you can even set up in your garage with the door up to allow lots of light in. Start paying attention to the light in the room in yourself with the largest window – notice when the room is bright, but you can’t see the shadow of the window on the floor in front of it (see this post for more explanation of this). That’s the time of day when you want to plan your newborn photo shoot.
Weddings are in the air during this sunny season, but it's also an ideal time to shoot your engagement photos, especially if you want a beachy backdrop or cloudless, rustic setting. If you're opting for the great outdoors, flat shoes, breathable fabrics and shorter hemlines are a must. Whether you like to sport vibrant prints or breezy nautical looks, summer engagement photos are the perfect chance to show off your casual-chic style.
@Leslie yes it is certainly easier to get people at ease outdoors without the studio lights and all the stuff that goes with it that can be intimidating. Try putting on some soft music that's relaxing, or some funky music to get people a bit more relaxed. The best way to get people to pose more easily is to talk to them! It's that simple. Stop focusing on the technical stuff, do that before they get in front of the camera. Then interact and talk to them. Ask them about them, their day, etc. It's also easier to show people how to pose by doing it first in their place, then have them repeat it. Hope that helps.
Julie always advises her clients to be natural. That is, where what you would normally where in your daily life… whatever you’re comfortable wearing. And Julie highly recommends not matching. Mainly because that is not natural (for most people anyway :). Also, don’t clean up the house too much. A “lived in” look is how most families live so why should it be any different for your family photos? And finally, try to relax and enjoy the experience even when baby is crying, toddler is running around, and the dog is being ornery. Sometimes, those chaotic, unscripted shots are the best and most memorable.
Hi, I was reading your post and need the help of someone who knows what they are talking about . I just purchased the canon T6i which comes with a standard lens and I’m not really familiar with the photography world so my question is what would be a good relatively inexpensive lens to get for portrait photography ? If it matters , I’m just a mom wanting to take some great pictures of my son and don’t want to spend a lot . Thank you
The small details that a couple has spent hours upon hours planning deserve to be photographed. Moreover, these details make for great photographs that you can use to tell the complete story of the wedding. It can sometimes be easy to forget to photograph these or the schedule might not allow it. But there is no doubt the couple will appreciate photos of things like flowers, rings, dress details, table settings etc.

Spring is symbolic of new beginnings, so what better time to celebrate your new new life as a married couple? This gorgeous season is all about pretty pastels, florals and dreamy details, so don't be afraid to add lively touches of color and whimsical prints to your spring engagement photo outfits when deciding what to wear. As far as accessories are concerned, let your romantic leanings take over: Floral details, flower crowns and vintage-inspired pieces are a fresh place to start.


I love to celebrate each of my client’s uniqueness during your photographic session. No experience will ever be the same, which is what I love the most about what I do! I strive to learn as much as I can about each individual in your family before our photo session so that each individual’s personality shines through in your images. Don’t forget to request my style guide for great tips on what to wear, location ideas, and everything in between!
Nick Kunzman is a professional photographer with 10 years of experience working with Natalie Roberson Photography. Nick attended Southwest Texas State University in San Marcos working towards a degree in Marketing. Nick has studied the art of photography independently and under Natalie Roberson. He specializes in creative design and Adobe Photoshop techniques. Nick uses some of the highest resolution cameras on the market today, creating detailed photographs that bring life to his art. Nick is the web designer and technical expert for Natalie Roberson Photography. He specializes in the creative efforts of post-production, lighting, website design and marketing promotions.

There are recognizable markers that trigger the “fall feeling” in each of us. With the weather cooling down, the leaves changing, and a trip to the pumpkin patch in the near future, fall is full of inspiration you can use for your outfit choices. If you are taking your family photos during the fall season, incorporate seasonal earth tones, rich maroons or burnt oranges. Wear layers and have fun playing in the leaves. Use the following Fall styling tips to guide your clothing selections.
The first thing that I want to mention is that if you currently own an SLR camera DO NOT immediately go and sell your camera in order to purchase one of the cameras here. Just because I perhaps don’t mention your camera in this article doesn’t mean it isn’t suitable for portrait or wedding photography. You may just want to keep this article in mind for future purchase, or upgrades.
Julia Lauren Photography creates relaxed, casual photo sessions in its newborn photography work. The Dallas photo studio also photographs family portraits, maternity photos, and high school senior portraits. Julia Lauren Photography has been featured in Fort Worth Texas Magazine, WFAA 8, and Us Weekly. Clients have praised the photographer for her stunning, meaningful work and fun photo shoots.

Speaking of having your first look on the aisle—Huang actually prefers this moment (and its resulting photos) to a pre-arranged first look ahead of the ceremony: "I find that couples are passing up the irreplaceable moment of coming down the aisle for something that was originally created as a back-up for tight wedding schedules. I think they can be really beautiful, but I would always recommend walking down the aisle as your true first look—there's nothing like it!"


Maxine Evans is a professional newborn, baby and maternity photographer whose work is based in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties. She has over 20 years’ experience in capturing maternity, newborn and baby photographs. Her experience, skills and patience allow her to capture amazing newborn and maternity portraits. Maxine is also a pediatrician and OBGYN approved expert in baby safety which makes her perfect for photographing babies especially the newborns who need more caution while trying different poses.
As professional photographers, and as a husband and wife team, we are passionate about capturing these timeless moments for our clients. With that understanding, we create beautiful images making all the special moments last forever for you and your family to cherish for a lifetime. We specialize in modern classic portraiture and service the entire Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. Natalie Roberson Photography is available for travel throughout the State of Texas and for destination photography.
Bella Baby is the face of hospital baby portraiture. We bring experienced, professional photographers into the hospitals to capture your baby's first photograph with a natural, artistic style. We believe that babies look the most beautiful when being held in their parents' arms or cuddled in one of their own baby blankets. Bella Baby captures this beauty by using only "real things"...natural window light, professional photographers and professional grade SLR digital cameras.
Emotional moments during the ceremony—everything from belly laughs to happy tears, both of which come out during the vows—are especially worth capturing, notes Gil. Huang says shooting poignant ceremony happenings is often both the most challenging and rewarding aspect of wedding photography: "The ceremony can be difficult because it is wildly out of the photographer's control in terms of timing, location, and lighting, but I find these moments tend to be the most real and the most sacred," she says. "It's a balance of creating beautiful images without disturbing the sanctity of the ceremony that I love."
It’s true when they say a picture is worth a thousand words – the stories that are told, tears that are shed, and jokes that are made when looking back at old family photos truly show the power and importance of photographs to preserve family memories. When choosing a photographer in Dallas, it’s not just about selecting someone with superior technical skills; it’s connecting with a photographer that understands the tremendous responsibility they are undertaking.
*Keep Lighting Soft*Direct flash almost never works—it often fights the sense of intimacy, warmth, and naturalness that characterize the best family portraits. “I avoid direct flash like the plague,” says Sue Barr. “It will flatten an image and drain it of all spontaneity.”To work without flash, you’ll want the fastest lens you can afford. This allows you to shoot in low light, defocus (and thereby declutter) backgrounds, and use fast, kid-freezing shutter speeds.Another lighting tip: avoid direct sun. “I like shooting on cloudy days,” says Barr, “and I use gold or silver reflectors to add spark.” The latter helps lighten the shadows of wrinkles, making it helpful with older family members. Family portraiture is rewarding because it gives you the chance to celebrate something that’s life affirming and positive. As amateur photographer Jeremy Rule (www.fiickr.com/ photos/JeremyRule) of North Bend, WA—whose portrait of an extended family above —says, “Family portraits rarely focus on disease, divorce, fighting, business, addiction, or a recession. When you hand a family a portrait, you’re giving them something to celebrate, bond, and rally around.”Jeremy Rule
If you have pets or kids, please feel free to include them in your session. However, I strongly suggest limiting their involvement. If you're going to bring pets or kids, you're also going to need to bring someone else to handle them. The best thing is to include them in the beginning of the session, for a brief time, and then having a trusted friend or family member take them home. If you don't, we'll spend valuable session time wrangling them. You won't be able to relax and be together if you've got kids running around that you need to keep an eye on, and it's difficult to cuddle up when you're trying to hold your dog's leash in your free hand!
I am not a huge photo prop person.  However, some props will make your session easier!  We brought a blanket, a wooden crate, and a fun turquoise chair!  All of these allowed us to take certain photos easily.  In the photo above, the crate enabled me to photograph my two children who vary greatly in height a lot easier!  You can tell that my son is shorter than my daughter, but the height difference is not as noticeable as it is when they stand next to each other.
Getting your head around this simple maths problem can save you a lot of anguish on the day. If a couple has allocated 2 hours for photographs, that actually means 1 hour. Weddings are always behind schedule and the smallest of things can upset the rhythm of the day. Wedding co-ordinators will be eager to get the couple in at least 30 mins before they are scheduled to sit down for food. So just bear that in mind when planning your time with the couple.
There is no other destination in the world quite like New York City: bright lights, bustling crowds, endless corridors of sky-high buildings. Visitors flock to this urban jungle for many reasons – whether it be for a family holiday, a surprise proposal or a spontaneous NYC elopement. When you make the trip to such an amazing place, you want to be able to treasure the moment and remember your time there for many more years to come. Hiring a specialised elopement & wedding photographer is a far more impressive way to capture the moment than fuzzy selfies. #stoptheselfies!

Being as I am just started out I figured it might be a good idea to get my feet wet in those editing programs before I take the big leap into Photoshop and pay it’s ungodly price!! (lol) anyhow, if you can think of a better site where I might get a little more practice editing pictures please let me know. And please let me know your honest opinion of the aforementioned websites.
Amy McDaniel is a child, newborn and maternity photographer. She is the owner of Dewdrops Photography and her work is based in Alabama, United States. Amy McDaniel loves children and this is why she is interested in photographing them. She focuses in her photographs on fun, simplicity, capturing a moment in time and recording those true expressions which make the photos look stunning even with those babies who are not easy to be photographed. 4 Dave Engledow – United States

Over the past few weeks I have been working on something new that will be coming to newbornposing.com A family portrait is the most valuable thing you should own. A big thank you to the Brown family (not related) for allowing me to capture these beautiful memories. #newbornposingdotcom #familyportraiture #family #portraitphotograpy #comingsoon #littlepiecesphotography #spinestreetstudios Backdrop by @shadesofjadeshop
Carrie Smith's two young boys inspired her love of photography, leading to the creation of Carrie Smith Photography. The Dallas photo studio specializes in newborn photography and also provides in-studio or on-site maternity portraits, hospital photos, children's portraits, and family portraits. Clients have praised Carrie Smith for her memorable photos that capture the subject's spirit and her warm, patient personality.
Start your search by reading reviews from recent newlyweds and browsing local listings, like the ones on The Knot Marketplace. Carefully review potential photographers' websites and blogs to check out photos of other weddings they've shot, which will give you an idea of their style. How do they capture the moments important to you, like a mother bustling her daughter's gown or an emotional first look? The design of the website may also have clues about the photographer's personality and sensibility. Check out their Facebook, Instagram and Twitter pages too, if possible. Is the feedback from clients positive? How does the photographer respond? How do they interact with their Instagram followers, do they seem friendly and personable? You get the idea. 

Thank you so much for this post! I too am trying to “learn” newborn photography, just did a shoot of my friend’s 10 month old daughter (they turned out beautiful!), but the little one month boy was another story! I am shooting another one month old little girl tomorrow, hopefully I will learn from my mistakes I made today! I am doing the pictures for free to learn, but this is so hard! I wish I knew what I was doing wrong, or do I just need to practice? Any tips would be greatly appreciated! Oh, I was raised in San Diego, my whole family is there, will be visiting for Christmas this year. Will be there for 2 weeks to pack up my mom and move her! Maybe I can get in on a photo session??? Hopefully I will have it figured out by then!
As a wedding is a one-time event, the photographer must be prepared for the unexpected. Covering a wedding is both exhausting and invigorating as the photographer is constantly looking for good angles and opportunities for candid shots. Communication and planning time-lines before the event will alleviate many of the stresses associated with photographing a wedding. The ability to tactfully take charge also helps - particularly when photographing large groups or families - a common expectation after the ceremony. Having a run list with all of the expected shots is also a useful tool. A photographer may work with an assistant who can carry equipment, arrange guests, and assist with clothing adjustments or holding of reflectors.
I attended the University of North Texas and received a Bachelor’s degree in Radio/Television and Film.  In 2011, I received a Master’s in Ed. Technology.  My first thought was I would teach technology/videography at a High School level, but I fell in LOVE with photography after my 1st daughter was born. She came into the world with the most beautiful red hair and striking blue eyes, needless to say, her Dad, her grandparents and myself were shocked!  I picked up a cheap Kodak camera and never stopped taking pictures.  Over the years I have self taught through online workshops, upgraded to a professional Canon Mark iii, purchased several fancy lens and just have gotten better by good ol’ fashion practicing.  I have 3 children ages 12, 10 and 8 who always give me a good reason to shoot what I see!  🙂  I love what I do, which I think truly shows in my work.  Photography and children inspire me.  I am so grateful to be a given a gift to see the world the way I do.

Candice Cusic is a Chicago based wedding and family photographer. She believes that the best images are moment-driven and that you don’t need a hundred photographs of the couple smiling for the camera. In a recent audio interview with Nine Dots she was giving her wedding photography tips and had  this to say when asked ‘do you believe there is enough work for everyone?’ She says –

By asking yourself that question, you will avoid taking a photo of a person with a blank expression.  You'll recognize that the person's expression isn't conveying a mood and you'll change it.  This can also happen in a landscape.  Look at the photo below of the bird in front of the sunset and you'll see that the exposure which was too bright did not convey a serene mood.
When it comes to tracking down all those amazingly candid guest photos, these apps and programs can only go so far. "The biggest thing is to include instructions early and remind guests," says Katelyn Wollet of Katelyn Wollet Photography. Whether those reminders are in the invitations, on your wedding website, or at the reception itself in some form, it's up to you as a couple to spread the word about taking and sharing footage.
The type of wedding ceremony that you are used to may be completely different in other faiths.  Sometimes photographers get thrown by this and it can affect the photos.  For example, photographers who shoot an LDS wedding shouldn't be surprised that you can't photograph the actual ceremony at all!  Photographers who shoot inside a cathedral shouldn't be surprised if you can't use flash.  Photographers at a Jewish wedding need to know not to miss the bride breaking the glass.  All religions do things differently and you should be familiar with how the wedding goes, and respect the religious differences (Thanks Rebecca Birrell)

Posed/studio sessions – Typically must be done within the first 2 weeks of birth when the baby is very sleepy and “mold-able”.  The focus in this type of session is on shots of the baby looking perfect, usually in blankets, wraps, hats, & headbands.  The session can last up to 4 hours with feeding, potty breaks, and posing.  Editing this type of session also takes quite a bit of time as each image needs to go through Photoshop individually to get a polished end result.

Unlike the work of your other wedding vendors (music, flower arrangements, cake), photographs aren't things you can hear, smell, taste or even see at first—you don't really know what you're getting until after the fact. That means careful research and selectiveness regarding professional skills, artistic style and personal demeanor are extra important when choosing your photographer.

If you have pets or kids, please feel free to include them in your session. However, I strongly suggest limiting their involvement. If you're going to bring pets or kids, you're also going to need to bring someone else to handle them. The best thing is to include them in the beginning of the session, for a brief time, and then having a trusted friend or family member take them home. If you don't, we'll spend valuable session time wrangling them. You won't be able to relax and be together if you've got kids running around that you need to keep an eye on, and it's difficult to cuddle up when you're trying to hold your dog's leash in your free hand!
People choose us not only because of our long history of eye-catching, heartwarming photography, but also because the photographers of JayLynn Studios strive to give you the results you want. It’s your style, your theme, and your family. Our job is to capture and ensure that we get the whole picture; by that, we mean the setting, the emotions, the background, and the importance of the occasion.
Plan on spending at least an hour to get some good shots. I generally spend two hours when I photograph a newborn (some pros spend twice that much time). If you’re taking pictures of your own baby, you could also plan to spend just half an hour but try once a day for the first week. Figure out what will work best for your schedule, but realize this won’t be a quick process. Also, the photoshoot will be much easier if you have someone to help you, so rope your husband/mom/friend into being your assistant.
Ok, the children are on vacation, this includes staying up late, watching TV and eating ice cream everyday! A fact, there are more great ice cream parlors on Sanibel Island than there are gas stations! So, of course the children are in a great mood. I try to capture these great moods in different areas of Fort Myers, Marco and Sanibel Islands. Parents will give me an idea of what they want from their family vacation photo session and we then plan the best location and time. On this blog page are pictures I recently created for a family that vacationed on Sanibel Island. Everyone was in a great mood, we created hundreds of images in just an hour or so. I think the parents did the ‘after this, we go for ice cream’ bribe. 🙂
“My favorite part of the session was how my son connected with Kate…she just has a way to make him laugh and smile. Usually when I ask him to smile for a picture he gives me this hard smile where he pushes his chin forward. It drives me nuts… It doesn’t look like him. But then Kate comes around, works her magic, and he smiles a smile that lightens up the world. Squinty eyes, dimples, and all… and my heart melts.”

Thank you!! I am not yet enrolled in photography classes, but at 32 if I hear one more person say “so why aren’t you a photographer?” I will cry. I love photography, just got my first SLR which I completely don’t understand yet, (aperture what??!?) but I will be learning. And since I am 7 months pregnant I was looking for some good tips in taking my own newborn photos, I appreciate you writing this! Very good info and depending how it goes, I may be pursuing a new career!

I know that many readers feel that they don’t have the time for shooting in RAW (due to extra processing) but a wedding is one time that it can be particularly useful as it gives so much more flexibility to manipulate shots after taking them. Weddings can present photographers with tricky lighting which result in the need to manipulate exposure and white balance after the fact – RAW will help with this considerably.
To get crystal-clear photos with a dreamy, blurred background, experiment with using lower F-stops. This means you will have to take your camera off auto-focus, but the results are more than worth it. The F-stop on a camera tells you how much light you let in while exposing your photo. Photos taken with a lower F-stop have a wider aperture to let in more light, but the depth of field is very shallow. This is what creates stunningly vivid portraits with gorgeously blurred backgrounds.
×