The fall family photography season is upon us. This is the busiest time for family photographers, especially here in Connecticut with the changing leaves and beautiful fall colors. With so many photographers to choose from, I thought it would be helpful to do a post with helpful tips on how to choose a family photographer. Whether you hire me, or another CT professional photographer, you’ll want to keep these suggestions in mind.  I hope this posts helps you know how to choose a family photographer from the start that is professional, experienced, and will provide you with quality images you will cherish forever.
We are so delighted that you are here. The National Association of Professional Child Photographers is an association whose mission is to promote and support the artistry and integrity of professional child photographers. To accomplish this mission, NAPCP provides the most comprehensive resources for its members, bringing together a community of passionate artists committed to growth in their skills, their artistry, and their businesses.

Not the first thing you would think of when reading a blog post about wedding photography tips? But comfy shoes and socks can be a lifesaver for a wedding photographer. (Maybe not quite lifesavers) Listen! you’re going to be walking, running, jumping A LOT during a wedding day. Get some comfy shoes. Bring a spare pair just in case the first get wet. There’s also nothing quite like putting a new pair of socks on so bring some of them as well!
Don't blame her for the poor price points in the Photography industry. You can blame Digital formats and cell phone imaging. Once companies like Sony and Canon produced prosumer cameras that shoot at a professional level with full auto options they created this secondary market which hurt the professional market tremendously. I'm a published photographer with 20+ years in the film industry and I've never seen such a lack of robust pricing for professional quality imaging. The bottom line is the average consumer really isn't experienced enough to understand the difference in image quality form a porfssional digital shooter to zn amateuw using full auto unless your educated in digital photography. Best advice is to learn to post process, certify in photoshop and lightroom and learn all forms of interactive media, or you will not last. Good luck
Come to JayLynn Studios for family photography services in Salt Lake City. As one of the most established studios in the city, entire clans have trusted us to take photos to commemorate celebratory, annual, and unique occasions. We’re not just here to tell you how to stand in front of a backdrop – our photographers will make sure that the pictures will look as great in the future as they do now.
Jessica Hanson Photography is a portrait and lifestyle photographer providing newborn and family portraits for clients in the Dallas area. Their team specializes in newborn, family, maternity, and children photography, and also offers photo coverage for weddings and engagements. Each photo session includes a pre-session consultation, a portrait session, a view and order session, custom photo editing, and delivery of photos. Clients love Jessica Hanson for her patience, flexibility, and ability to capture the genuine expressions of her subjects.
So much can go wrong on the day – so you need to be well prepared. Have a backup plan (in case of bad weather), have batteries charged, memory cards blank, think about routes and time to get to places and get an itinerary of the full day so you know what’s happening next. If you can, attend the rehearsal of the ceremony where you’ll gather a lot of great information about possible positions to shoot from, the lighting, the order of the ceremony etc
Just as you do not want the exposure to change from frame to frame, neither do you want the focus to be adjusted. Assuming you’ve taken #1 to heart and are using a tripod, you will not be moving. Likely if you’ve posed your group in a relatively static position, they will not be moving. Not much anyway. We are only concerned with moving closer to, or further away from the camera. So . . .
So many photographers cite the first look as one of their favorite wedding moments to capture, and there's a good reason why. "We love first looks because they are all about our couples!" explains the pros at Koman Photography. "Our couples get to hug one another, laugh, kiss, cry, jump up and down, and soak in the realization that they are getting married today!"
Yes, you can take newborn photos after two weeks but you’ll have to opt for different poses and concepts. Your newborn will likely be awake during the session so you should go for photos that include the baby with clothes on and wide awake. Taking newborn photos after two weeks isn’t unheard of and your photos will still turn out well. However, your little one won’t curl up so easily after two weeks so we encourage you to take a different approach with your photos. Babies begin to stretch and extend their arms and legs after two weeks, making it harder for them to naturally curl up during photos. Don’t be discouraged though by timing as you should still schedule a newborn session even if two weeks have passed by.
*Stay Awhile*When working with groups, be patient. Eleonora Chornaya, a pro from Kiev, Ukraine (www.evachornaya.com), advises that the best shots often come deep into a shoot, when subjects are tiring and lacking the energy for artificial seeming poses. In her father/daughter portrait above, she intentionally left her subjects alone “to give the scene time to settle. I watched them from a distance, and when they relaxed almost to the point of boredom, I took out my camera.” Learn to work with children. Bing Liem, who specializes in shots of his daughters, says that if you’re shooting children you should get down on their level at first. Then change your point of view. “Shoot from slightly above to emphasize the child’s eyes, or from below to give a child a monumental, adult treatment,” he says. Tilting the camera so the subject isn’t square within the frame is an effective way to produce tighter shots that don’t look like elementary-school portraits. “But be careful not to include door jams or windows in the background, because the tilted camera will show these normally horizontal and vertical lines askew, which can be subconsciously off-putting,” says Liem. And, “shoot in relaxed settings that the kids are accustomed to,” he advises. “Hauling out big lights only makes them nervous.” You should work quickly. “Flow from moment to moment,” counsels amateur Nolke. “Work with the child’s poses, expressions and moods. Don’t dictate.”Eleonora Chornaya

Eden Bao is a premier maternity photographer, newborn photographer, baby photographer and family photographer. Our studio is based out of Bothell and we serve Seattle and the surrounding areas, including Mill Creek, Everett, Mukilteo, Woodinville, Snohomish County, King County, Skagit County, Pierce County, Bellevue, Kirkland, Edmonds, Lynnwood, Marysville, Lake Stevens, Sammamish, Redmond, Issaquah, Renton, Shoreline and the Pacific North West.


"Objects and details that are culturally and emotionally meaningful to the union" should be photographed, advises Jen Huang. You will, however, want to notify your photographer of these accents, especially if they're small or easily overlooked, notes Jiu: "As photographers we aim to get all the photos that are important to you. But sometimes, we may not notice the really small things without you pointing it out to us. So if you're carrying your grandmother's rosary or your groom has a picture of his grandparents on his cufflinks, we want to see it all!"

You don't want to be in the position as the wedding photographer of needing to fight the client after the fact (or during!) with what they have and have not paid for.  Before the event, clearly communicate to them what services you are prepared to offer for the price they pay.  Do you include digital files?  How many hours of work will you shoot?  Are you going to shoot the reception too?  Is there a travel charge?  What prints are included?  Will you do an album?  Provide answers or face the wrath of bridezilla. (Thanks Gaelene Gangel)


With thirteen uncles and aunts on my dad's side, I have a very large extended family. I don't do family portraits often, but when I do, I've found that the best two techniques that work for me for ensuring everyone's looking in the same direction and are ready for the group shot is (1) telling them beforehand that if they can't see my camera's lens from their position in the group, then my camera is likely not going to see them either, so they need to find another position, and (2) I give them a "3-2-1" (or for larger groups, a "5-4-3-2-1") countdown before taking the shot. This usually results in me getting the shot I want pretty quickly, and I don't have to go through dozens of shots to find one where everyone is actually ready for their picture to be taken.
One of my biggest mistakes, when I was starting out, was that I brought all my props/wraps/blankets/headbands to every single session.  When I got set up, I would have a mini panic attack because I had no idea where I should start.  Now I plan 3-4 different setups (based on the client’s preferences and expectations) and that’s all.  I am often inspired by something the client owns as well, such as a blanket knitted by Grandma or something else that’s special to mom and dad, so it is not uncommon for me to not even use everything I bring.
Your clients need to have a clear understanding of what the newborn photoshoot day is going to look like. An email template is probably your best bet. Prepare a template outlining the usual itinerary and what will be included (what you’re providing or bringing), along with what your clients should provide or bring, including any newborn photography props they want to try out.
They’re more important than senior class pictures, get more exposure than a drivers license photo, and serve as a visual debut to the world… The birth announcement photo! If you’re like me, newborn photo announcements are a standard parent operating procedure. I have a huge collection of my friends’ and families’ newborn announcements, most of which are still stuck to my fridge.

Meet a few photographers before hiring anyone. Any photographer should be willing to meet with you either in person or by phone before you commit to hiring them just like a contractor would be. (If they aren’t you might want to think twice about working with them because that shows they are not valuing the relationship and are more likely to think of you as a pay check.) Just like when you are choosing a pediatrician, or a pre school, when you hire a photographer you are hiring someone who will be intimately involved with your life. The only way to get beautiful, true images is to work with someone who you genuinely like and trust. True images only happen when you will feel comfortable being yourself around your photographer.
Nursed Shots – some of the bests shots I’ve taken over the last month have been taken when people have been nursing Xavier. This puts him into a more upright position which makes him look a little more ‘human-like’ and opens up the angles for your photos. Try a number of positions (over the shoulder, sitting him up, laying him back in arms, lying him on his tummy etc) as each one opens up different possibilities. Also remember that your baby is not the only potential subject – parents, grandparents, siblings, friends etc all can add context to the shot and you’ll appreciate having more than just baby by themselves shots later!
Baby pictures are among the most popular types of portrait photography, and most newborn photographers are well versed in the best places to take baby pictures in their local areas. Some newborn photographers will come to the hospital to shoot the baby within a day or two of birth, while others have set up their studios to accommodate the needs of infants. Some parents prefer to have the newborn photographer come to their home or travel to a favorite park or other outdoor location. Like any portrait photography, the best place to take baby pictures is the place you like best and that will yield the types of photos you want of your baby, whether that’s posed and carefully lit studio portraits or spontaneous, casual photos at home. Work with a local newborn photographer to find a safe, calm location with great lighting and some privacy for your family.
"I recently did a photo shoot with James and he was great! I contacted him 4 days before I needed to have the photos done and he was responsive within 15 minutes. He is really flexible with times and locations. We went to a few cool locations downtown that I would have never thought of. Very nice young man who knows what he is doing. I would do another photo shoot in the future!"
Babies look peaceful while sleeping — and they are also easier to work with for photographs because they aren’t going to pull out of that swaddle. That doesn’t mean you can’t photograph a newborn that’s wide awake, but be aware that many of the poses you see aren’t possible with an alert baby because they wiggle out of that perfect placement of the hands and toes.
If you need more inspiration for poses or styling tips, these family photo ideas should help. If you’re taking black and white photos, find inspiration using our guide on how to dress for a black and white photoshoot. Once you get your portraits, share these memories with the ones you love and create a family photo album or a custom home decor piece everyone will adore.
If newborns can’t hold their heads up, how do you pose them? A beanbag is an easy tool for helping contour the baby into natural poses. Beanbags designed for the task are easier to work with, but a regular beanbag can work too with a bit more finesse and a bit less cash. Another great posing item for newborns is one that many mums have — a u-shaped nursing pillow.

Network with everyone. You should take every opportunity to network.[15] If you are working towards a specific specialization, such as wedding photography, network with everyone in your town who has an association with weddings. Talk to and give your card to wedding planners, cake bakers, caterers, other photographers (they may have a conflict and be asked for a referral), wedding dress shop employees, etc.
8) Market, market, market. The key to success in a photography business is marketing. You can’t take and get paid for photos if no one hires you. Along with business cards, brochures and a website, use your personal and professional networks to spread the word about your business. Attend trade shows and events geared toward your market. For example, if you want to do wedding photography, attend wedding shows. If you want to take pet portraits, attend dog shows. 

The ability to bounce a flash or to diffuse it is key. You’ll find that in many churches that light is very low. If you’re allowed to use a flash (and some churches don’t allow it) think about whether bouncing the flash will work (remember if you bounce off a colored surface it will add a colored cast to the picture) or whether you might want to buy a flash diffuser to soften the light. If you can’t use a flash you’ll need to either use a fast lens at wide apertures and/or bump up the ISO. A lens with image stabilization might also help. Learn more about Using Flash Diffusers and Reflectors.
Don't underestimate the importance of liking and bonding with your photographer. Is the photographer excited by your vision when you describe it? When they make suggestions, do they present them in a clear and respectful way, or are they timid? Are their mannerisms off-putting? In order to get the best photos, go with a pro who has a firm grasp of social graces but is bold enough to go out hunting for great images and who, above all, puts you at ease and doesn't irritate you in any way. Remember: They'll be shadowing your every move, and the more comfortable both of you are with the photographer, the better the photos will turn out. Likewise, you don't want the photographer to offend or annoy any guests, but to shoot them in their best light in an unobtrusive way. To get the best photos, your photographer needs to be assertive enough to seek out great moments, cajoling enough to coax relaxed smiles and natural stances from guests, and calm enough to be a positive force. They should ask lots of questions and be a good listener.
This is great news for you photographers who want to try out different types of photography, or make a little money from your photography. Newborn baby pics are also an amazing addition to your online photography portfolio; a great newborn photoshoot can really show off your skill and range as a shooter (to say nothing of your subject wrangling skills!).
Sandra Bianco is a child, newborn, fine art, commercial and editorial photographer. Her work is based in South Florida; however she is available to travel to other areas to allow her customers to get what they want. What makes Sandra Bianco’s photographs amazing is depending on the surrounding beauty of nature in most of her photographs. You can find natural light, butterflies, flowers and more natural items that make the photographs more impressive and help in making children look more beautiful. 5 Amy McDaniel – United States

Some wedding photographers have an office or studio which can double as a retail photography studio. In bigger cities, one might find dedicated wedding photography studios that only cover weddings and may have large studios equipped with make-up, hair, and a selection of gowns ready for the bride to wear. Other wedding photographers may work from a home studio or from a coworking space, preferring to photograph clients on-location. These home based photographers may hire additional photographers to assist them if the wedding program is large or otherwise unmanageable by a single photographer.

When scheduling the session the earlier the better. Newborns much younger tend to do very well in the studio, oppose to a baby that is 10-14 days old. They tend not to wake up frequently and as easily when getting them posed for the scene. A mere 48 hours in a newborns life is very crucial when prepping them for their session. I have witness many, many times after the 10 day mark, newborns have discovered the art of stretching! Once that happens…they won’t let us curl them up in the cute little newborn poses, without a fight!


Emotional moments during the ceremony—everything from belly laughs to happy tears, both of which come out during the vows—are especially worth capturing, notes Gil. Huang says shooting poignant ceremony happenings is often both the most challenging and rewarding aspect of wedding photography: "The ceremony can be difficult because it is wildly out of the photographer's control in terms of timing, location, and lighting, but I find these moments tend to be the most real and the most sacred," she says. "It's a balance of creating beautiful images without disturbing the sanctity of the ceremony that I love."

If the price is too much for you and you have an idea of what you want for newborn photos, they sell tons of affordable props you can use for your own photo session. They have websites that sell the cute hats, hammocks, blankets etc. Then you can set them up all the time for each mile stone too. Regular cameras are so much better than they used to be. It won't be the same, but you could get a lot more for your money by setting it up yourself.


“The passion definitely has to be there. More than that, you have to really want it, especially in the beginning. Go out of your way to do shoots for free. Not just any shoots, but “portfolio worthy” ones. Take control – style it, creative direct it, own it. Admit and learn from your mistakes. And finally, only show your very best work. You will be judged by your worst shot”
Moms are often rushing around before a photo shoot, making sure that their family is dressed and ready. I always encourage mothers to have their hair and makeup professionally done. This will prepare mom for her pictures and when mom is feeling pretty and confident, this will reflect on the rest of the family as well. Leave plenty of time for showers, baths, dressing, and grooming. When a family shows up to a family photo session rushed and disorganized, it sets the tone for a rushed and disorganized session. Give yourself extra time so that you are ready before it’s time to head out that door.

If you need more inspiration for poses or styling tips, these family photo ideas should help. If you’re taking black and white photos, find inspiration using our guide on how to dress for a black and white photoshoot. Once you get your portraits, share these memories with the ones you love and create a family photo album or a custom home decor piece everyone will adore.

#2 – it allows you to get your eye away from the camera so you can actually make eye contact with your subjects. They are very real people and they feel even more uncomfortable staring straight into your lens than they do looking at you. You can make gestures to get kids attention, or make faces. But you’ll get way better expressions by interacting with them than you will looking through the viewfinder. Try it!

Hey Caroline! Glad to hear you’re enjoying the site :) I haven’t personally used a 60D so I can’t comment on it extensively but it looks like a great camera. We started out with 10D’s, 20D’s, 30D’s, and 40D’s – so we’ve worked through that lineup quite a bit. Those cameras served us well! They we’re easy to control, and produced great quality results.
The length of time that the photographer's services are required can contribute significantly to cost. Any additional activities beyond the ceremony and reception that couples want photographed can add to the time and cost, including photos of the wedding party getting ready, formal family photos, rehearsal dinners, bridal showers, engagement photos or engagement parties, day-after brunches, and so on. The average wedding photography agreement is typically for 8-10 hours or more so the photographer can capture the venue, the ceremony and the important parts of the reception.
Whether you are having timeless family heirlooms created, or you are wanting something done of a more private nature, a maternity photographer will give you photos that you'll love. The true beauty that shows through is beyond description. You actually have to see for yourself, and even then it is hard to believe. Even if you had no intention of sharing your maternity photography, you will want these classic beauties to be seen, at least by close friends and relatives. Michael's maternity photography is beautifully taken, lighting is perfect to flatter the silhouette and then the editing process takes the actual finished product to extraordinary heights. You will see your maternity photography and have a whole new appreciation for both the art, and for your body during pregnancy. You will finally see how truly beautiful that you and that pregnancy can be.
Some photographers also include high resolution photograph files in their packages. These photographers allow their clients limited rights to reproduce the images for their personal use, while retaining the copyright. Not all photographers release files and those who do will most likely charge a premium for them, since releasing files sometimes means giving up any after wedding print or album sales for the most part. In the cases where photographers release the high resolution images they are usually supplied on CD, DVD or USB Stick however, this depends on the individual companies and it's recommended the client(s) checks what is included with the photographers wedding photography package before signing any contracts.
Don't feel that your outfit needs to match that of your future spouse. Coordination is okay, but I don't encourage matching. Look for colors that compliment each other, or are in the same color family. You will also want to make sure your outfits are harmonious. If you're wearing an evening gown, you will want to make sure your future spouse is wearing something that goes with it. Likewise, you wouldn't want one of you in a formal tuxedo and the other in jeans and a t-shirt!
They are very similar and both are cute pictures. However, the bottom photo is much more flattering to the baby’s face. In the top photo I was slightly closer to his feet and shooting up his nose, which makes his nostrils very prominent in the photo. It also makes the bottom half of his face look larger than the top half. The second photo shows his face in much better proportion. (Did you notice his hand? I should have pulled that pinky finger out so the whole thing would be visible – it’s those little details that really make a beautiful photo.)

A rookie error is to shoot loads and loads of photos of the Bride but from only the waist up. Just make sure you are getting plenty of shots of the Bride full length as well. The Bride will of spent hours and hours agonising over her wedding dress. She will also spend lots and lots of money on acquiring it. So make sure you do it justice by capturing it in its entirety where possible.
For this type of pose I usually move my couch cushions out of the way and put the baby all the way down on the floor. Then I stand on a chair near him and photograph him from directly above (see the first photo below). But if the baby really wants to turn her head to the side it’s worth hopping off the chair and lying down right next to her to get a few photos that show her face better (second photo below).
Consider the Lilies Photography offers portrait sessions in the North Dallas and surrounding areas. All digital images are beautifully edited, high-resolution and delivered in both color and black-and-white for your unlimited self-printing, with the option to purchase additional professional-quality prints and products. Working with Consider the Lilies Photography, you’ll choose from portrait session packages that fit your family’s needs, such as the “Watch Me Bloom” mini portrait session that captures and preserves all of those precious childhood moments without investing in a multi-hour portrait session. A unique offering is the “Newborn & Family Lifestyle” in-home portrait session which highlights the connection of your loved ones in the natural and relaxed environment of your own home — perfect for welcoming a precious newborn baby. If you’re looking for beautiful portraits to adorn your home and to create memories of your loved ones that will last a lifetime, visit the website to learn more today!
Initially, professional studio photographers might bring a lot of bulky equipment, thus limiting their ability to record the entire event. Even "candid" photos were more often staged after the ceremony. In the 1970s, the more modern approach to recording the entire wedding event started evolving into the practice as we know it today, including a more "Documentary photography" style of photography.[citation needed]
Bella Baby is the face of hospital baby portraiture. We bring experienced, professional photographers into the hospitals to capture your baby's first photograph with a natural, artistic style. We believe that babies look the most beautiful when being held in their parents' arms or cuddled in one of their own baby blankets. Bella Baby captures this beauty by using only "real things"...natural window light, professional photographers and professional grade SLR digital cameras.

Oh Babies! I love babies! They don’t call them bundles of joy for nothing. I specialize in newborn photography due to the monumental joy a new life brings and I want to preserve those moments for your family in a unique and timeless way. Those little toes and sweet features mature and grow so quickly. It always comes as a shock to us mothers how fast time flies. This is why I am so passionate about providing families with high-quality images of their babies in a safe and comfortable environment.
Around your world in a day: Create a meaningful backdrop for your engagement photos by revisiting nearby sites that are significant to the two of you: the restaurant where you had your first date, the ice cream shop you frequent on Sundays, the bus stop where you shared an umbrella—you get the idea. While the camera's snapping, retell your best couple stories and relive a few of the moments that brought you together—it's a perfect recipe for a series of romantic, fun candids.
Family portraits are a great way to mark the passage of time, create lifelong keepsakes and have gorgeous-looking photos for your annual holiday card. The national average cost for hiring family photographers ranges from $150 to $200. Pricing can range higher depending on where you live, length of the photo shoot, the number of edited photos you request, and the background and reputation of your family photographer. Before hiring, make sure you understand their fees up front. Ask how many finished images are included in the quoted price and whether you will receive all the photos taken (not just edited photos). Ask whether you’ll be able to download digital photos or if you’ll have to print them or purchase digital copies through the photographer. Here are some average examples of family photographer pricing:
Don’t stop me now. I’m having such a good time. I’m having a ballll. Ooops got a bit carried away there. Seriously a wedding is fast paced so you need to work at the speed of light. This mainly comes with the experience of knowing what will happen and when. Following this sort of wedding photography tutorial will certainly help to know exactly what to expect.

I don’t mind them most of the time – I think they show your baby as he or she is and there’s nothing wrong with that. However at times they can be a little distracting and for those special shots that you might like to give as gifts you might like to do a little photoshop retouching. Most post processing editing tools will have some sort of airbrush or retouching tool – learn to use it, even if it’s just to smooth over the main marks and you’ll be amazed by the results.


Consider a special service. Rent the Runway offers a genius Wedding Concierge program that helps brides get dressed for their big prewedding events. (In this case, that could mean an engagement photo session followed by an engagement party—talk about two birds, one stone.) Sign up for access to styling consultations and outfit rental options that won't break the bank. 
“When I proudly tell my couples that I have an iPhone app to tell me when it’s golden hour they often laugh at me, but it can be magical if you catch the right light. Because the weather is so variable in the UK and because I shoot a lot of urban weddings where buildings block the sunset, when I see beautiful golden hour light I can’t help but get a bit excited. If you can schedule at least 15 minutes of your portrait session to happen just before sunset, it will totally be worth it if the weather plays its part.”
If having the digital files from your session is important to you, then there are some details that you’ll definitely want to understand up front. Does the photographer offer digital files to the client? If so, are they included in the price? And if they’re extra, how much will they cost? Will you get a print release? Some photographers will give you a print release that allows you to print the photos anywhere you want, while others will restrict you to a certain printer, or even to web-use only.
Hi Linda! Perfect, so glad you love the article I hope you signed up for our mailing list to get your newborn toolkit and other freebies to help get you going quickly and lastly, you are among the first to know that we are working on finishing up our complete Newborn Photography Workshop Course which will be out at the end of the year…it will be an amazing product though which we are so excited for!

Think 20+ years down the road. I’m sure we all enjoy looking at our own baby pictures, but as an adult, don’t those pictures have more sentiment if they include family and friends? I know it’s easy to see someone else with a camera and quickly try to dodge out of the way equipped with every excuse in the book (My hair’s a mess! Pictures make me look fat! I’m dressed like a bum!). When your baby becomes an adult, I’m sure they’d appreciate seeing themselves surrounded by their loved ones more than having album after album of just themselves.

Morning and dusk are the best times to take photos for lighting, but not always the most convenient time.  The lighting right before dusk is my absolute favorite!  It is warm and beautiful but for children, sometimes it is the hardest time of the day.  Morning light is beautiful as well, but sometimes a bit cool, so be prepared to do a little editing.  The afternoon light is just too harsh so avoid it is possible.  If it is not possible, find shade to take your photos in to diminish the risk of harsh shadows.
Jason -- Sorry for the late reply! For me, it's all about personality. I've had families who all wore gaudy Hawaiian shirts (you would think it would be horrid with the clashing, but it actually worked beautifully!), all in shades of (color), University sweatshirts, swimsuits and scuba gear, sports uniforms, whatever. Their personality and their own flavor should guide their clothing. As a general rule, I do ask that they don't mix wild patterns (with the one exception above) but other than that, I figure I can work it out by who's standing next to whom, if that makes sense.
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